Enersol Articles and Papers

Condom Size

Excerpt:

"The value of condoms in preventing STIs and unwanted pregnancies is widely recognised. But their effectiveness depends on a number of factors, of which the three most important are:

  1. The condom should be used
  2. The condom should not break
  3. The condom should not slip off during use.

It is highly plausible that the risk of slippage and breakage depends on the relative size of the condom and the penis onto which it is put.

It is also clear that using condoms is a chore for many people, who would ideally prefer to have their sexual activities without condoms. It is therefore desirable to make them as easy and comfortable as possible to put on and to wear.

Natural rubber latex is the raw material for well over 99% of the condoms made today. Its elastic properties are ideally suited for the purpose, because it stretches so easily. For many years, manufacturers adopted a "one size fits all" policy, with all condoms in any one market being virtually the same size.

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Condoms and Disease

Excerpt:

"The measurement of condom effectiveness is a very complex issue, due to difficulties in definition and measurement. The range of issues to be addressed is broad, and has been categorised in a report to WHO¦, called the Condom Effectiveness Matrix, produced in 1994. It posed a graded series of nine questions, starting with questions about the condom as a device, and working through to the effectiveness of condoms to prevent the transmission of diseases as a public health measure at the population level. For each of the nine levels, it considered the contributing factors, research necessary to resolve outstanding issues, and the criteria by which outcomes would be assessed."

In this present article, discussion will largely be confined to a subset of issues - the actual protection against disease offered by condoms in human use.

The protectiveness of condoms against diseases in general can be assessed in three different ways:..."

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The use of PSA to Measure Condom Effectiveness

Excerpt:

"Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) was first called P30. It is a glycoprotein secreted by the prostate gland, and is present in semen, and in mens’ blood. It is not present in secretions from women. In 1978, Sensabaugh et al[1] reported its isolation and potential as a marker for semen. The test is very sensitive and very specific. PSA is detectable in the vagina for about 24 hours after it was deposited, and not detectable after about 27 hours.

Subsequently, elevated PSA levels in the blood became an indicator of likely prostatic cancer, and routine pathology tests for it have been available for about 10 years.

The assessment of condom performance has attracted increased attention since the emergence of HIV. On the basis of all available evidence, most scientists believe that male condoms, when properly used, provide a barrier against the transmission of both HIV and many other STIs. "

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